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你造吗?世界上最擅长模仿人类面部表情的动物竟然是它

2019-05-03 19:53:29



一提到“熊”这类动物,大家脑海中首先浮现的是什么呢?熊大熊二?功夫熊猫?还是隔壁某个惹人厌的“熊孩子”?今天小译要给大家介绍一位“熊界”新朋友——太阳熊,一种像树懒一样可爱的生物!但它可比树懒灵活多了,还会像人类一样表情模仿呢!

Sun?bears?are?the?smallest?of?all?bear?species,?growing?about?5?feet?(1.5?meters)?long?andweighing?up?to?150?pounds?(68?kilograms).?Theyare?usually?solitary?creatures,?feeding?on?a?varietyof?insects,?honey?and?fruits?in?their?nativeSoutheast?Asian?rainforests.?

太阳熊(学名为马来熊)是所有熊类中体型最小的一类,体长约5英尺(1.5米),体重达150磅(68公斤)。太阳熊喜欢独居,常以东南亚热带雨林中的各类昆虫,蜂蜜以及果实为食。

Yet?these?small,?mostly?solitary?bears?haverevealed?some?big?insights?aboutcommunication?and?social?sensitivity?inmammals,?according?to?a?new?study?published?inthe?journal?Scientific?Reports.?Sun?bears?canexactly?mimic?each?others'?facial?expressions,?the?study's?authors?report,?the?first?time?suchprecise?facial?mimicry?has?been?seen?beyondhumans?and?gorillas.?

发表在《科学报告》杂志上的一项新研究结果发现,我们可以从体型偏小、喜独居的太阳熊身上看到哺乳动物在沟通和社交方面的敏感性。该项研究的作者称,太阳熊可以精确地相互模仿对方的面部表情,除人类和大猩猩之外,我们首次在其他动物当中发现如此相似的表情模仿。


"Mimicking?the?facial?expressions?of?others?inexact?ways?is?one?of?the?pillars?of?humancommunication,"?says?co-author?Marina?Davila-Ross,?a?researcher?of?comparative?psychology?atthe?University?of?Portsmouth?in?the?U.K.,?in?astatement?about?the?findings. "Other?primatesand?dogs?are?known?to?mimic?each?other,?butonly?great?apes?and?humans?were?previouslyknown?to?show?such?complexity?in?their?facialmimicry."?

该项研究报告的合著者、英国朴茨茅斯大学比较心理学研究院的玛丽娜?达维拉-罗斯坦言:“准确地模仿他人的面部表情是人类交流过程中的一个核心所在。现在也有研究发现,其他灵长类动物和狗类也会相互模仿,但最初只有类人猿和人类才能进行如此复杂的面部表情模仿。”

The?study?is?based?on?the?coded?facialexpressions?of?22?sun?bears,?ranging?in?age?from2?to?12?years?old.?They?were?recorded?duringspontaneous?social?play?sessions?at?BorneanSun?Bear?Conservation?Centre?in?Malaysia,?whereenclosures?are?large?enough?that?the?bears?candecide?for?themselves?whether?to?interact?withone?another.?

该项研究以22只年龄介于2岁至12岁之间的太阳熊为研究对象,并对他们的面部表情进行了编码。在马来西亚婆罗洲的马来熊保育中心,研究人员记录了马来熊的无意识社交活动过程。该保育中心的空间足够大,太阳熊们可以自发地进行互动。


Although?sun?bears?are?typically?solitary,?they?dohave?a?social?side.?The?bears?in?this?study?joinedin?hundreds?of?play?sessions,?with?more?thantwice?as?many?involving?gentle?play?comparedwith?rough?play.?They?were?more?likely?to?useprecise?facial?mimicry?during?gentle?play,?whichthe?researchers?say?might?help?two?bears?fortifytheir?social?bonds,?or?agree?to?play?more?roughly.

虽然一般情况下太阳熊处于独居状态,但它们也会进行社交。该研究中,这些熊参与了数百种社交活动,其中进行舒缓性活动的次数是剧烈性活动次数的两倍多。在舒缓性的活动中,它们更倾向于准确的表情模仿。有关研究人员说,这可能会增强两只熊之间的社会联系,或是赞同一起参与更剧烈活动的一种暗示。

?


But?since?this?kind?of?social?interaction?isrelatively?uncommon?for?sun?bears,?especially?inthe?wild,?it?raises?questions?about?what?othersubtle?communication?skills?we?might?beoverlooking?in?other?mostly?solitary?animals. "What's?most?surprising?is?the?sun?bear?is?not?asocial?animal,"?Davila-Ross?says. "In?the?wild,?it'sa?relatively?solitary?animal,?so?this?suggests?theability?to?communicate?via?complex?facialexpressions?could?be?a?pervasive?trait?inmammals,?allowing?them?to?navigate?theirsocieties."?

其实这种社交对太阳熊来说并不常见,尤其是在野外环境下。那么便产生了一个引人深思的问题:我们是否也忽略了其他独居动物之间微不可察的交流技能呢?达维拉-罗斯称,“最让我们吃惊的是,在野外,太阳熊并不是群居动物,而是一种相对独居的动物,也就意味着通过复杂的面部表情进行交流的这种能力可能是哺乳动物所拥有的普遍特征,能以此促进它们所处的社交圈的发展。”


Also?known?as?honey?bears,?due?to?theirpenchant?for?raiding?beehives,?sun?bears?arelisted?as?Vulnerable?by?the?International?Union?forConservation?of?Nature.?Their?numbers?aredeclining?for?several?reasons,?including?poaching,?habitat?loss?due?to?deforestation,?and?retaliationfrom?farmers?for?eating?their?crops.?Sun?bearmothers?are?also?increasingly?killed?so?their?cubscan?be?taken?into?captivity,?either?as?pets?or?forthe?widely?condemned?practice?of?"bile?farming."?By?raising?their?public?profile?and?revealing?arelatable?degree?of?social?sophistication,?research?like?this?could?be?a?useful?tool?inprotecting?the?species.?

由于太阳熊们特别喜欢攻击蜂巢,所以也称蜜熊,国际自然保护联盟(UICN)将其列为脆弱物种。太阳熊数量减少的原因有很多,包括非法狩猎、滥伐森林导致的栖地丧失以及农夫的报复(因为太阳熊会偷食他们的农作物)。同时太阳熊母亲被杀害的频率也越来越高,如此一来,它们的幼崽要么被圈养为宠物,要么被送往受大众谴责的“熊胆养殖场”。通过提升太阳熊在公众心中的印象及揭晓与之相关的社交趣事,这类研究可以作为一种保护太阳熊的有利渠道。

And,?as?co-author?and?University?of?PortsmouthPh.D.?candidate?Derry?Taylor?explains,?there?arealso?broader?implications.?Many?of?the?socialskills?and?subtleties?that?seem?unique?to?humansand?our?close?relatives?may?be?more?commonthan?we?thought.

而且,根据该研究报告的另一位合著者、英国朴茨茅斯大学博士生德瑞?泰勒的解释,这其中还有更深刻的启示。许多看似只有人类和灵长类动物特有的社交技巧及一些微妙的行为存在的范围可能远比我们想象中更广。


"Sun?bears?are?an?elusive?species?in?the?wild?andso?very?little?is?known?about?them.?We?know?theylive?in?tropical?rainforests,?eat?almost?everything,?and?that?outside?of?the?mating?season?adultshave?little?to?do?with?one?another,"?Taylor?says. "That's?what?makes?these?results?so?fascinating—?they?are?a?non-social?species?who,?when?faceto?face,?can?communicate?subtly?and?precisely."

泰勒说:“生存在野外的太阳熊是一种让人捉摸不定的生物,所以我们对其知之甚少。据我们所知,它们通常生活在热带雨林,几乎什么都吃。除交配季节外,成年熊之间几乎没有任何交集,所以我们这项研究结果才让人眼前一亮——虽然它们不常社交,但当彼此面对面的时候,它们还是可以巧妙且准确地互相交流。”

读完文章,大家有没有被我们的新朋友太阳熊给萌到呀?其实动物世界还有很多有趣的“朋友”和现象,如果感兴趣的话,可以多去了解,说不定会有你意想不到的收获哦~

翻译: 刘洁 (北语) 编辑:Guanwen

文章来源:MNN

标签: 表情 动物 面部

#20
WAEUNION

好想要一只

2019-05-04 15:33:26 来自Android客户端
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#19
经常动脑,防止老年痴呆症。

够萌

2019-05-04 14:45:00 来自Android客户端
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去了解一下

2019-05-04 13:26:48
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好想亲眼看看

2019-05-04 13:13:55
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#16
为什么不能多于十五字!!!

第一张有点吓人

2019-05-04 11:55:16 来自Android客户端
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2019-05-04 11:11:22 来自Android客户端
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#14

2019-05-04 10:19:02 来自Android客户端
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#13
hjc,otf测80

2019-05-04 09:59:17 来自Android客户端
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动物的眼神是干净的。

2019-05-04 09:18:56
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#11
没有谁十全十美,所以,不必完美

真可爱

2019-05-04 08:07:24 来自Android客户端
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#10
相信自己,你迟早会浴火涅槃。

还是蛮萌的。

2019-05-04 07:57:50 来自Android客户端
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#9
鹰击长空鱼翔浅底

涨姿势

2019-05-04 07:35:40
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大千世界无奇不有

2019-05-04 07:13:21
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难以置信

2019-05-04 06:36:29
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#6
鹰击长空 鱼翔浅底

现在知道了

2019-05-04 02:50:41
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我造

2019-05-03 22:08:42 来自Android客户端
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#4
中考加油

2019-05-03 21:28:41 来自Android客户端
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#3
用舍由时,行藏在我。

好萌诶~

2019-05-03 21:27:47 来自Android客户端
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#2
Come on to the future.

涨姿势了

2019-05-03 19:55:52 来自Android客户端
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#1
Come on to the future.

1楼

2019-05-03 19:54:47 来自Android客户端
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